Infertility is defined as a disease or condition of the reproductive system often diagnosed after a couple has had one year of unprotected………….., or if the woman has suffered from multiple miscarriages.
Infertility is “a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected …………(and there is no other reason, such as breastfeeding or postpartum amenorrhoea).
Primary infertility is infertility in a couple who have never had a child.
Secondary infertility is failure to conceive following a previous pregnancy. Infertility may be caused by infection in the man or woman, but often there is no obvious underlying cause.
According to the study it says :-
§ About 20% of cases of infertility are due to a problem in the man.
§ About 40% to 50% of cases of infertility are due to a problem in the woman.
§ About 30% to 40% of cases of infertility are due to problems in both the man and the woman.
Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. In humans it accounts for 40-50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men. Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.
1) Sperm production problems:- • Chromosomal or genetic causes
• Undescended testes (failure of
the testes to descend at birth)
• Torsion (twisting of the testis in scrotum)
• Varicocele (varicose veins of the testes)
• Medicines and chemicals
• Radiation damage
• Unknown cause
2) Blockage of sperm transport:- • Infections
• Prostate-related problems
• Absence of vas deferens
3) Sexual problems
(erection and ejaculation problems):- • Retrograde and premature ejaculation
• Failure of ejaculation
• Erectile dysfunction
• Infrequent intercourse
• Spinal cord injury
• Prostate surgery
• Damage to nerves
• Some medicines
4) Hormonal problems:- • Pituitary tumours
• Congenital lack of LH/FSH (pituitary problem from birth)
• Anabolic (androgenic) steroid abuse
5) Sperm antibodies:- • Vasectomy
• Injury or infection in the epididymis
• Unknown cause
MALE INFERTILITY TREATMENT
Here are the nutrients specifically needed for a healthy male fertility diet, they should be added to the diet as well as supplemented:
In men, zinc is considered one of the most important trace minerals for fertility; increasing zinc levels in infertile men has been shown to boost sperm levels, improve the form, function and quality of the sperm thus decreasing male infertility.
Food sources: Calf liver, oysters, beef, lamb, venison, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, yogurt, turkey, peas, and shrimp. Zinc can be damaged by cooking so it is important to eat some foods high in zinc in their raw forms.
Selenium is necessary for the creation of sperm. In studies, men with low sperm counts have also been found to have low levels of selenium.
Food sources: Brazil nuts, liver, snapper, cod, halibut, tuna, salmon, sardines, shrimp, and turkey.
Necessary for every cell in the body for energy production, CoQ10 is an important antioxidant that helps to protect cells from free radical damage, thus protecting DNA: it is necessary for sperm motility in semen. Additionally, studies have shown that CoQ10 can increase sperm health.
Food sources: Found most abundantly in seafood and organ meats, though it is very difficult to obtain through the diet. CoQ10 Ubiquinol supplementation is the best way to obtain CoQ10 – keep in mind that amounts in the body decline with age.
Vitamin E has been shown in studies to improve sperm health and motility in men. Studies have also shown a diet deficient in Vitamin E to be a cause of infertility in rats. The meaning of the name for vitamin E ‘Tocopherol’ literally means to bear young. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant to help protect sperm and egg DNA integrity.
Food sources: Sunflower seeds, almonds, olives, spinach, papaya, and dark leafy greens.
Folic acid – New research suggests that folic acid can boost sperm health. Men with low levels of folate had increased risks for sperm that contained too little or too many chromosomes. If an egg is fertilized by an abnormal sperm it could result in a birth defect such as downs syndrome, or an increased chance of miscarriage.
Food sources: Liver, lentils, pinto beans, garbanzo beans, asparagus, spinach, black beans, navy beans, kidney beans, and collard greens.
Vitamin B12 – Also known as cobalamin, vitamin B12 is involved in cellular replication and studies indicate a deficiency can lead to reduced sperm count and motility. Supplementation is advised for any man whose sperm count is less than 20 million or has a motility rate of less than 50%. Studies indicate that supplementation with vitamin B12 at 1,000mcg per day may increase sperm count.
Food sources: Clams, oysters, muscles, liver, caviar (fish eggs), fish, crab, lobster, beef, lamb, cheese, and eggs.
Vitamin C – For men, vitamin C has been shown to improve sperm quality and protect sperm from DNA damage; helping to reduce the chance of miscarriage and chromosomal problems. Vitamin C also appears to keep sperm from clumping together, making them more motile.
Food sources: Abundant in plants and fruits including red peppers, broccoli, cranberries, cabbage, potatoes, tomatoes, and citrus fruit.
L-Carnitine – Carnitine is a necessary nutrient for sperm cells to function normally. Sperm require high concentrations of carnitine for energy metabolism. Studies indicate that the level of free carnitine in seminal fluid directly correlates with sperm count and motility. The lower the concentrations of carnitine in the seminal fluid, the lower the sperm count. Research shows that supplementing with L-carnitine for a minimum of 4 months helps to increase sperm count and motility in men with low sperm count and quality. Carnitine and CoQ10 have been shown to work synergistically when combined.
Food sources: Red meat and dairy products.
Antioxidants – Antioxidants are one of the most important components to having healthy fertility that every man and women needs to focus on. Antioxidants help to protect the sperm from free radical damage. Free radicals are able to damage both sperm cell health and the cell’s DNA. The DNA of both partners is the future blueprint for a child. Damaged DNA is known to cause miscarriages, birth defects, and/or developmental problems for the future child. Studies have also shown a connection between oxidative stress caused from free radicals and male infertility. Fertilica Choice Antioxidants contains all of the most important antioxidants nutrients in a capsule form. This blend is great for both men and women, but especially for men with low sperm count and poor sperm health.
The treatment of male infertility depends upon the underlying cause. Several months to years of treatment are usually necessary to achieve fertility.
Blockage of the reproductive tract —
Men who have a blockage in the ducts conveying the sperm from the testis until ejaculation (so that sperm cannot get out) can undergo surgery to correct the blockage. If it is not successful, another option is assisted reproductive technologies using sperm retrieved from the testes. (See "Treatment of male infertility", section on 'Retrieval of sperm from the testis'
Vasectomy (male sterilization) is a different type of blockage. Vasectomies can be reversed in up to 85 percent of cases; over 50 percent of couples can achieve pregnancy following vasectomy reversal. However, the more time that has passed since the vasectomy, the less likely vasectomy reversal is to restore fertility.
Treatment of hypothalamic or pituitary deficiency — In a small percentage of cases (1 to 2 percent), male infertility is due to problems in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (parts of the brain that regulate hormone production). In this case, treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH), also called gonadotropin treatment, is often given.
Gonadotropin treatment — Gonadotropin treatment is started with injections of hCG three times per week (or sometimes every other day) for up to six months. Blood tests are used to monitor blood testosterone levels and to adjust the dose if necessary. If sperm cells do not appear in semen after six months of treatment, recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) is added; this is also given by injection. The success rate for this therapy is high as most men will eventually develop sperm in the ejaculate. In many cases, a total of one to two years of treatment is needed to achieve normal fertility. The cost of these treatments can be significant, especially if health insurance does not cover the costs of infertility treatments.
Varicocele — A varicocele is a dilation of a vein (like a varicose vein) in the scrotum. Many men with varicocele have a low sperm count or abnormal sperm morphology (shape). The reason a varicocele affects the sperm may be related to a higher than normal temperature in the testicles, poor oxygen supply, and poor blood flow in the testes.
Varicocele can be treated surgically by cutting the veins connected to the varicocele. However, surgery does not always improve fertility and is not recommended for most men unless there is a large varicocele. A varicocele that has been present for a long time can cause irreversible damage that cannot be surgically treated.
An alternative to varicocele repair is assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). With ICSI, only a small number of sperm are needed.
Other — Treatment is not currently available for most types of male infertility. For example, there is no known treatment when the sperm-producing structures of the testes have been severely damaged or are abnormal. This happens in men with certain chromosomal abnormalities such as Klinefelter syndrome and small deletions in the Y (male-specific) chromosome.